Preview

Кардиология

Расширенный поиск

Профилактика инфекционного эндокардита: современные подходы

https://doi.org/10.18087/cardio.2020.12.n886

Полный текст:

Аннотация

В настоящем обзоре освещаются современные представления о профилактике инфекционного эндокардита (ИЭ). Описываются история развития концепции антибактериальной профилактики (АБП) ИЭ, основные подходы и обоснование изменения принципов АБП в последние годы. Подробно освещаются последние принятые международные и национальные рекомендации, в частности, Европейского общества кардиологов, Американской ассоциации сердца/Американской коллегии кардиологов и Японского общества по кровообращению. Представлена критическая оценка принятых ранее международных рекомендаций с анализом влияния частичного или полного ограничения АБП на заболеваемость ИЭ и частоту его осложнений. Отдельное внимание уделено осведомленности практических врачей и, в частности, стоматологов, о проблемах АБП в своей практике. Обсуждаются вопросы обоснованности и специфики профилактических подходов при имплантации электронных кардиальных устройств и транскатетерной имплантации аортального клапана.

Об авторах

Г. Г. Тарадин
ГОО ВПО «Донецкий национальный медицинский университет им. М. Горького», Донецк, Украина
Украина

заведующий кафедрой терапии ФИПО им. проф. А.И.Дядыка ГОО ВПО "Донецкий национальный медицинский университет им. М.Горького", к.мед.н., доцент, Донецк

старший научный сотрудник отдела кардиохирургии и неотложной кардиологии ГУ "Институт неотложной и восстановительной хирургии им. В.К.Гусака", Донецк



Н. Т. Ватутин
ГОО ВПО «Донецкий национальный медицинский университет им. М. Горького», Донецк, Украина
Украина
заведующий кафедрой госпитальной терапии ГОО ВПО "Донецкий национальный медицинский университет им. М.Горького"


Г. А. Игнатенко
ГОО ВПО «Донецкий национальный медицинский университет им. М. Горького», Донецк, Украина
Украина
заведующий кафедрой пропедевтической и внутренней медицины, ректор ГОО ВПО «Донецкий национальный медицинский университет им. М.Горького»


Е. Ю. Пономарева
ФГБОУ ВО «Саратовский ГМУ им. В. И. Разумовского» Минздрава России, Саратов, Россия
Россия
доцент кафедры госпитальной терапии


Бернард Дэвид Прендергаст
Госпиталь Св. Томаса, отделение кардиологии, Лондон, Великобритания
Великобритания
профессор


Список литературы

1. Демин А.А. Инфекционный эндокардит (профилактика, диагностические критерии и лечение): ключевые положения 2010. Рациональная Фармакотерапия в Кардиологии. 2010;6(5):747-8. DOI: 10.20996/1819-6446-2010-6-5-747-748

2. Тюрин В.П. Инфекционные эндокардиты. – М.:ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2013. - 358с. ISBN 978-5-9704-2554-1

3. Cahill TJ, Prendergast BD. Infective endocarditis. The Lancet. 2016;387(10021):882–93. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00067-7

4. Cahill TJ, Baddour LM, Habib G, Hoen B, Salaun E, Pettersson GB et al. Challenges in Infective Endocarditis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2017;69(3):325–44. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.066

5. Cahill TJ, Dayer M, Prendergast B, Thornhill M. Do patients at risk of infective endocarditis need antibiotics before dental procedures? BMJ. 2017;358:j3942. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.j3942

6. Garg P, Ko DT, Bray Jenkyn KM, Li L, Shariff SZ. Infective Endocarditis Hospitalizations and Antibiotic Prophylaxis Rates Before and After the 2007 American Heart Association Guideline Revision. Circulation. 2019;140(3):170–80. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.037657

7. Белов Б.С., Тарасова Г.М. Антибактериальная терапия и профилактика инфекционного эндокардита в современных условиях. Эффективная фармакотерапия. 2019;15(8):52–8

8. Tran HM, Truong VT, Ngo TMN, Bui QPV, Nguyen HC, Le TTQ et al. Microbiological profile and risk factors for in-hospital mortality of infective endocarditis in tertiary care hospitals of south Vietnam. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(12):e0189421. DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0189421

9. Пономарева Е.Ю., Ландфанг С.В. Анализ госпитальной летальности при инфекционном эндокардите. Фундаментальные исследования. 2015;1(6):1222-5

10. Cresti A, Chiavarelli M, Scalese M, Nencioni C, Valentini S, Guerrini F et al. Epidemiological and mortality trends in infective endocarditis, a 17-year population-based prospective study. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy. 2017;7(1):27–35. DOI: 10.21037/cdt.2016.08.09

11. Sunder S, Grammatico-Guillon L, Lemaignen A, Lacasse M, Gaborit C, Boutoille D et al. Incidence, characteristics, and mortality of infective endocarditis in France in 2011. PLOS ONE. 2019;14(10):e0223857. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223857

12. Shah ASV, McAllister DA, Gallacher P, Astengo F, Rodríguez Pérez JA, Hall J et al. Incidence, Microbiology, and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Infective Endocarditis. Circulation. 2020;141(25):2067– 77. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044913

13. Bin Abdulhak AA, Baddour LM, Erwin PJ, Hoen B, Chu VH, Mensah GA et al. Global and Regional Burden of Infective Endocarditis, 1990–2010: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Global Heart. 2014;9(1):131–43. DOI: 10.1016/j.gheart.2014.01.002

14. Thornhill MH, Jones S, Prendergast B, Baddour LM, Chambers JB, Lockhart PB et al. Quantifying infective endocarditis risk in patients with predisposing cardiac conditions. European Heart Journal. 2018;39(7):586–95. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx655

15. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, editors -Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders;2015. - 3094 p. ISBN 978-1-4557-4801-3

16. Cahill T, Jewell P, Denne L, Franklin R, Frigiola A, Orchard E et al. Contemporary epidemiology of infective endocarditis in patients with congenital heart disease: A UK prospective study. American Heart Journal. 2019;215:70–7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2019.05.014

17. Hsiao C-C, Weng C-H, Li Y-J, Wu H-H, Chen Y-C, Chen Y-M et al. Comparison of the clinical features and outcomes of infective endocarditis between hemodialysis and non-hemodialysis patients. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 2017;13:663–8. DOI: 10.2147/TCRM.S135262

18. Strom BL, Abrutyn E, Berlin JA, Kinman JL, Feldman RS, Stolley PD et al. Risk Factors for Infective Endocarditis: Oral Hygiene and Nondental Exposures. Circulation. 2000;102(23):2842–8. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.102.23.2842

19. Демко И.В., Пелиновская Л.И., Манхаева М.В., Ищенко О.П., Мосина В.А., Крапошина А.Ю. и др. Особенности течения инфекционного эндокардита у инъекционных наркоманов. Российский кардиологический журнал. 2019;24(6):97–102. DOI: 10.15829/1560-4071-2019-6-97-102

20. Rudasill SE, Sanaiha Y, Mardock AL, Khoury H, Xing H, Antonios JW et al. Clinical Outcomes of Infective Endocarditis in Injection Drug Users. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2019;73(5):559–70. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.10.082

21. Gray ME, Rogawski McQuade ET, Scheld WM, Dillingham RA. Rising rates of injection drug use associated infective endocarditis in Virginia with missed opportunities for addiction treatment referral: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2018;18(1):532. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3408-y

22. Тарадин Г.Г., Ватутин Н.Т., Прендергаст Б.Д., Ньютон Д.Д., Чаус Е.А., Смирнова А.С. Инфекционный эндокардит у пожилых: современный взгляд на проблему. Терапевтический архив. 2016;88(11):128-37. DOI: 10.17116/terarkh20168811128-137

23. Østergaard L, Mogensen UM, Bundgaard JS, Dahl A, Wang A, TorpPedersen C et al. Duration and complications of diabetes mellitus and the associated risk of infective endocarditis. International Journal of Cardiology. 2019;278:280–4. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.09.106

24. Fernández-Cruz A, Muñoz P, Sandoval C, Fariñas C, GutiérrezCuadra M, Pericás Pulido JM et al. Infective endocarditis in patients with cancer: a consequence of invasive procedures or a harbinger of neoplasm? A prospective, multicenter cohort. Medicine. 2017;96(38):e7913. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000007913

25. Dayer M, Thornhill M. Is antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective endocarditis worthwhile? Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. 2018;24(1):18–24. DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2017.10.006

26. Peterson GE, Crowley AL. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Infective Endocarditis: A Pound of Prevention and an Ounce of Cure. Circulation. 2019;140(3):181–3. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.041085

27. Lewis T, Grant RT. Observations relating to subacute infective endocarditis. Heart. 1923;10:21–77

28. Thomas CB, France R, Reichsman F. The prophylactic use of sulfanilamide: in patients susceptible to rheumatic fever. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1941;116(7):551–60. DOI: 10.1001/jama.1941.02820070001001

29. Jones TD, Baumgartner L, Bellows MT, Breese BB, Kuttner AG, McCarty M et al. Prevention of rheumatic fever and bacterial endocarditis through control of streptococcal infections. Circulation. 1955;11:317–20

30. Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M, Lockhart PB, Baddour LM, Levison M et al. Prevention of Infective Endocarditis: Guidelines From the American Heart Association: A Guideline From the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation. 2007;116(15):1736– 54. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.183095

31. Thuny F, Grisoli D, Cautela J, Riberi A, Raoult D, Habib G. Infective endocarditis: prevention, diagnosis, and management. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2014;30(9):1046–57. DOI: 10.1016/j.cjca.2014.03.042

32. Richey R, Wray D, Stokes T, Guideline Development Group. Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2008;336(7647):770–1. DOI: 10.1136/ bmj.39510.423148.AD

33. Habib G, Hoen B, Tornos P, Thuny F, Prendergast B, Vilacosta I et al. Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (new version 2009): the Task Force on the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Endorsed by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the International Society of Chemotherapy (ISC) for Infection and Cancer. European Heart Journal. 2009;30(19):2369–413. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp285

34. Habib G, Lancellotti P, Antunes MJ, Bongiorni MG, Casalta J-P, Del Zotti F et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis: The Task Force for the Management of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)Endorsed by: European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS), the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). European Heart Journal. 2015;36(44):3075–128. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv319

35. Nishimura RA, Otto CM, Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Erwin JP, Guyton RA et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2014;148(1):e1–132. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.05.014

36. NICE. Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: antimicrobial prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adults and children undergoing interventional procedures. Clinical guideline [CG64]. 2008. [Internet] Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG64

37. Danchin N, Duval X, Leport C. Prophylaxis of infective endocarditis: French recommendations 2002. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2005;91(6):715–8. DOI: 10.1136/hrt.2003.033183

38. Duval X, Delahaye F, Alla F, Tattevin P, Obadia J-F, Le Moing V et al. Temporal Trends in Infective Endocarditis in the Context of Prophylaxis Guideline Modifications: three successive population-based surveys. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012;59(22):1968–76. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.02.029

39. DeSimone DC, Tleyjeh IM, Correa de Sa DD, Anavekar NS, Lahr BD, Sohail MR et al. Incidence of Infective Endocarditis Caused by Viridans Group Streptococci Before and After Publication of the 2007 American Heart Association’s Endocarditis Prevention Guidelines. Circulation. 2012;126(1):60–4. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.095281

40. DeSimone DC, Tleyjeh IM, Correa de Sa DD, Anavekar NS, Lahr BD, Sohail MR et al. Incidence of Infective Endocarditis Due to Viridans Group Streptococci Before and After the 2007 American Heart Association’s Prevention Guidelines: an extended evaluation of the Olmsted County, Minnesota, population and Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2015;90(7):874–81. DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.04.019

41. Pant S, Patel NJ, Deshmukh A, Golwala H, Patel N, Badheka A et al. Trends in Infective Endocarditis Incidence, Microbiology, and Valve Replacement in the United States From 2000 to 2011. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015;65(19):2070–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.03.518

42. Thornhill MH, Dayer MJ, Forde JM, Corey GR, Chu VH, Couper DJ et al. Impact of the NICE guideline recommending cessation of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of infective endocarditis: before and after study. BMJ. 2011;342:d2392. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.d2392

43. Dayer MJ, Jones S, Prendergast B, Baddour LM, Lockhart PB, Thornhill MH. Incidence of infective endocarditis in England, 2000–13: a secular trend, interrupted time-series analysis. The Lancet. 2015;385(9974):1219–28. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62007-9

44. Cahill TJ, Harrison JL, Jewell P, Onakpoya I, Chambers JB, Dayer M et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Heart. 2017;103(12):937–44. DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-309102

45. Keller K, von Bardeleben RS, Ostad MA, Hobohm L, Munzel T, Konstantinides S et al. Temporal Trends in the Prevalence of Infective Endocarditis in Germany Between 2005 and 2014. The American Journal of Cardiology. 2017;119(2):317–22. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.09.035

46. Van den Brink FS, Swaans MJ, Hoogendijk MG, Alipour A, Kelder JC, Jaarsma W et al. Increased incidence of infective endocarditis after the 2009 European Society of Cardiology guideline update: a nationwide study in the Netherlands. European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes. 2016;3(2):141–7. DOI: 10.1093/ehjqcco/qcw039

47. Chen T-T, Yeh Y-C, Chien K-L, Lai M-S, Tu Y-K. Risk of Infective Endocarditis After Invasive Dental Treatments: Case-Only Study. Circulation. 2018;138(4):356–63. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.033131

48. Marra F, George D, Chong M, Sutherland S, Patrick DM. Antibiotic prescribing by dentists has increased: why? The Journal of the American Dental Association. 2016;147(5):320–7. DOI: 10.1016/j.adaj.2015.12.014

49. Мишутина О.Л. Профилактика инфекционного эндокардита при стоматологических вмешательствах у пациентов группы риска. Вестник Смоленской государственной медицинской академии. 2011;10(2):2-5

50. Suda KJ, Calip GS, Zhou J, Rowan S, Gross AE, Hershow RC et al. Assessment of the Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescriptions for Infection Prophylaxis Before Dental Procedures, 2011 to 2015. JAMA Network Open. 2019;2(5):e193909. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3909

51. Anguita P, Anguita M, Castillo JC, Gámez P, Bonilla V, Herrera M. Are Dentists in Our Environment Correctly Following the Recommended Guidelines for Prophylaxis of Infective Endocarditis? Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition). 2019;72(1):86–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2018.04.029

52. Löffler C, Böhmer F, Hornung A, Lang H, Burmeister U, Podbielski A et al. Dental care resistance prevention and antibiotic prescribing modification—the cluster-randomised controlled DREAM trial. Implementation Science. 2014;9(1):27. DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-9-27

53. Thornhill MH, Dayer MJ, Prendergast B, Baddour LM, Jones S, Lockhart PB. Incidence and nature of adverse reactions to antibiotics used as endocarditis prophylaxis: Figure 1. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2015;70(8):2382–8. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkv115

54. Cloitre A, Duval X, Hoen B, Alla F, Lesclous P. A nationwide survey of French dentists’ knowledge and implementation of current guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis of infective endocarditis in patients with predisposing cardiac conditions. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 2018;125(4):295–303. DOI: 10.1016/j.oooo.2017.10.002

55. Silva Conde I, Torres-Saura F, Alperi García A, de la Hera Galarza JM. Prophylaxis of Infective Endocarditis in Dentistry: Analysis of the Situation After Almost a Decade of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition). 2019;72(1):95. DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2018.07.013

56. Harken DE, Soroff HS, Taylor WJ, Lefemine AA, Gupta SK, Lunzer S. Partial and complete prostheses in aortic insufficiency. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 1960;40:744–62. PMID: 13711583

57. de Oliveira JC, Martinelli M, Nishioka SAD, Varejão T, Uipe D, Pedrosa AAA et al. Efficacy of Antibiotic Prophylaxis Before the Implantation of Pacemakers and Cardioverter-Defibrillators: Results of a Large, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. 2009;2(1):29–34. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCEP.108.795906

58. Carrasco F, Anguita M, Ruiz M, Castillo JC, Delgado M, Mesa D et al. Clinical features and changes in epidemiology of infective endocarditis on pacemaker devices over a 27-year period (1987–2013). Europace. 2016;18(6):836–41. DOI: 10.1093/europace/euv377

59. Klug D, Lacroix D, Savoye C, Goullard L, Grandmougin D, Hennequin JL et al. Systemic Infection Related to Endocarditis on Pacemaker Leads: Clinical Presentation and Management. Circulation. 1997;95(8):2098–107. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.95.8.2098

60. Habib G, Erba PA, Iung B, Donal E, Cosyns B, Laroche C et al. Clinical presentation, aetiology and outcome of infective endocarditis. Results of the ESC-EORP EURO-ENDO (European infective endocarditis) registry: a prospective cohort study. European Heart Journal. 2019;40(39):3222–32. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz620

61. Prendergast BD, Redwood SR. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: New Gold Standard for the Treatment of Aortic Stenosis. Circulation. 2019;139(24):2724–7. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.040016

62. Chourdakis E, Koniari I, Hahalis G, Kounis NG, Hauptmann KE. Endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a current assessment. Journal of Geriatric Cardiology. 2018;15(1):61–5. DOI: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2018.01.003

63. Bjursten H, Rasmussen M, Nozohoor S, Götberg M, Olaison L, Rück A et al. Infective endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a nationwide study. European Heart Journal. 2019;40(39):3263–9. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz588

64. Gallouche M, Barone-Rochette G, Pavese P, Bertrand B, Vanzetto G, Bouvaist H et al. Incidence and prevention of infective endocarditis and bacteraemia after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a French university hospital: a retrospective study. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2018;99(1):94–7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2017.11.013

65. Butt JH, Ihlemann N, De Backer O, Søndergaard L, Havers-Borgersen E, Gislason GH et al. Long-Term Risk of Infective Endocarditis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2019;73(13):1646–55. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.12.078

66. Ahmad K, Klaaborg KE, Hjortdal V, Nørgaard BL, Terkelsen CJ, Jensen K et al. Prosthetic valve endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation-diagnostic and surgical considerations. Journal of Thoracic Disease. 2016;8(10):E1213–8. DOI: 10.21037/jtd.2016.10.28

67. Albes JM. Current practice in prophylaxis of endocarditis: are we running into trouble? European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2019;56(1):1–6. DOI: 10.1093/ejcts/ezz151

68. Pippi R. Antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: some rarely addressed issues. British Dental Journal. 2017;222(8):583–7. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2017.356

69. Walter J, Noll I, Feig M, Weiss B, Claus H, Werner G et al. Decline in the proportion of methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from non-invasive samples and in outpatient settings, and changes in the co-resistance profiles: an analysis of data collected within the Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network, Germany 2010 to 2015. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2017;17(1):169. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2271-6

70. Mori M, Shioda K, Nguemeni Tiako MJ, Bin Mahmood SU, Mangi AA, Yun JJ et al. Comparable perioperative outcomes and mid-term survival in prosthetic valve endocarditis and native valve endocarditis. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2018;54(6):1067–72. DOI: 10.1093/ejcts/ezy191

71. Luciani N, Mossuto E, Ricci D, Luciani M, Russo M, Salsano A et al. Prosthetic valve endocarditis: predictors of early outcome of surgical therapy. A multicentric study. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2017;52(4):768–74. DOI: 10.1093/ejcts/ezx169

72. Leone S, Ravasio V, Durante-Mangoni E, Crapis M, Carosi G, Scotton PG et al. Epidemiology, characteristics, and outcome of infective endocarditis in Italy: the Italian Study on Endocarditis. Infection. 2012;40(5):527–35. DOI: 10.1007/s15010-012-0285-y

73. Farrington DK, Kilgo PD, Thourani VH, Jacob JT, Steinberg JP. High Risk of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis and Death After Valve Replacement Operations in Dialysis Patients. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2016;101(6):2217–23. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.11.017

74. Prendergast BD. The changing face of infective endocarditis. Heart. 2006;92(7):879–85. DOI: 10.1136/hrt.2005.067256

75. Falcone M, Tiseo G, Durante-Mangoni E, Ravasio V, Barbaro F, Ursi MP et al. Risk Factors and Outcomes of Endocarditis Due to Non-HACEK Gram-Negative Bacilli: Data from the Prospective Multicenter Italian Endocarditis Study Cohort. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2018;62(4):e02208-17. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02208-17


Для цитирования:


Тарадин Г.Г., Ватутин Н.Т., Игнатенко Г.А., Пономарева Е.Ю., Прендергаст Б.Д. Профилактика инфекционного эндокардита: современные подходы. Кардиология. 2020;60(12):117-124. https://doi.org/10.18087/cardio.2020.12.n886

For citation:


Taradin G.G., Vatutin N.T., Ignatenko G.A., Ponomareva E.J., Prendergast B.D. Antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: current approaches. Kardiologiia. 2020;60(12):117-124. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.18087/cardio.2020.12.n886

Просмотров: 569


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 0022-9040 (Print)
ISSN 2412-5660 (Online)